RAMADHAN 13

Kemarin kita mencoba untuk mengenali “spesifikasi” dari intelegensia yang kita miliki, yang masing-masing orang walau memiliki kesemuanya, tetapi dengan kadar yang berbeda-beda. Sebagaimana dicontohkan oleh dua gambar kecil yang berbentuk lingkaran, yang merupakan hasil analisis pada suatu tes. [Sudahkah anda mencoba melakukannya?].

Apapun hasilnya, itulah yang diberikan oleh Allah swt, dan kewajiban kita untuk selalu berusaha mengembangkannya dan memanfaatkannya semaksimal mungkin, guna memberi manfaat kepada diri kita dan sekitar kita, sebagai bentuk syukur atas karunia yang telah diberikan-Nya.

Pada halaman-halaman berikut, kita dapat menemukan uraian tentang multiple inteligences tersebut, yang kiranya dapat memberikan tambahan pemahaman kita akan hal tersebut.

Saya sendiri tidaklah sangat memahami hal-hal tersebut, rasa ingin berbagilah yang mendorong saya menyampaikan hal tersebut melalui kesempatan ini. Intelegensia yang kita miliki, tidaklah akan memberikan arti bilamana tidak diberikan asupan melalui proses belajar. Ternyata setiap orang memiliki gaya yang berbeda dalam belajar. Dalam hal belajar ini, para ahli telah menggolongkan beberapa tipe untuk dikenali dan dimanfaatkan, antara lain:

  • Visual Learners, yang nyaman dengan menggunakan matanya;
  • Auditory Learners, yang nyaman dengan menggunakan telinganya; dan
  • Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners, yang nyaman dengan menggunakan gerakan anggota badan atau tubuhnya.

Tetapi ada pula yang menggolongkannya secara berbeda, yaitu Carl Jung, dengan mengkategorikan gaya belajar seseorang dalam:

  • Extroversion vs. Introversion
  • Sensation vs. Intuition
  • Thinking vs. Feeling
  • Judging vs. Perceiving

Mungkin sudah ada yang pernah mendengar pengelompokan semacam itu, tetapi bukan dalam gaya belajar, melainkan dalam ciri-ciri kepribadian yang kita miliki. Sepertinya sumbernya sama, yaitu Carl Jung. Dan yang terakhir ini, terkenal dengan nama Myers-Briggs Type Indicator [BMTI].

Dan bisa menjadi tambahan bacaan di akhir minggu ini

Wa Allahu a’lam.

Saifuddien Sjaaf Maskoen

What Are Multiple Intelligences?

When you hear the word intelligence, the concept of IQ testing may immediately come to mind. Intelligence is often defined as our intellectual potential; something we are born with, something that can be measured and a capacity that is difficult to change. In recent years, however, other views of intelligence have emerged. One such conception is the theory of multiple intelligences proposed by Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner.

This theory suggests that traditional psychometric views of intelligence are too limited. Gardner first outlined his theory in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, where he suggested that all people have different kinds of “intelligences.”1 Gardner proposed that there are eight intelligences, and has suggested the possible addition of a ninth known as “existentialist intelligence”2.

In order to capture the full range of abilities and talents that people possess, Gardner suggests that people do not have just one intellectual capacity, but have many different intelligences including musical, interpersonal, spatial-visual and linguistic intelligences3

Gardner’s theory has come under criticism from both psychologists and educators. These critics argue that Gardner’s definition of intelligence is too broad, and that his eight different “intelligences” simply represent talents, personality traits and abilities. Gardner’s theory also suffers from a lack of supporting empirical research4.

Despite this, the theory of multiple intelligences enjoys considerable popularity with educators. Many teachers utilize multiple intelligences in their teaching philosophy and work to integrate Gardner’s theory into the classroom.

Visual-Spatial Intelligence

Strengths: Visual and Spatial Judgment

People who are strong in visual-spatial intelligence are good a visualizing things. These individuals are often good with directions as well as maps, charts, videos and pictures.

Characteristics of Visual-Spatial Intelligence

  • Enjoys reading and writing
  • Good at putting puzzles together
  • Good at interpreting pictures, graphs and charts
  • Enjoys drawing, painting and the visual arts
  • Recognizes patterns easily

Potential Career Choices

  • Architect
  • Artist
  • Engineer

Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence

Strengths: Words, Language and Writing

People who are strong in linguistic-verbal intelligence are able to use words well, both when writing and speaking. These individuals are typically very good at writing stories, memorizing information and reading.

Characteristics of Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence

  • Good at remembering written and spoken information
  • Enjoys reading and writing
  • Good at debating or giving persuasive speeches
  • Able to explain things well
  • Often uses humor when telling stories

Potential Career Choices

  • Writer / Journalist
  • Lawyer
  • Teacher

Logical – Mathematical Intelligence

Strengths: Analyzing Problems and Mathematical Operations

People who are strong in logical-mathematical intelligence are good at reasoning, recognizing patterns and logically analyze problems. These individuals tend to think conceptually about numbers, relationships and patterns.

Characteristics of Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

  • Excellent problem-solving skills
  • Enjoys thinking about abstract ideas
  • Likes conducting scientific experiments
  • Good and solving complex computations

Potential Career Choices

  • Scientist
  • Mathematician
  • Computer programmer
  • Engineer
  • Accountant

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

Strengths: Physical Movement, Motor Control

Those who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are said to be good at body movement, performing actions and physical control. People who are strong in this area tend to have excellent hand-eye coordination and dexterity.

Characteristics of Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

  • Good at dancing and sports
  • Enjoy creating things with their hands
  • Excellent physical coordination
  • Tends to remember by doing, rather than hearing or seeing

Potential Career Choices

  • Dancer
  • Builder
  • Sculptor
  • Actor

Musical Intelligence

Strengths: Rhythm and Music

People who have strong musical intelligence are good and thinking in patterns, rhythms and sounds. They have a strong appreciation for music and are often good at musical composition and performance.

Characteristics of Musical Intelligence

  • Enjoy singing and playing musical instruments
  • Recognizes musical patterns and tones easily
  • Good at remembering songs and melodies
  • Rich understanding of musical structure, rhythm and notes

Potential Career Choices

  • Musician
  • Composer
  • Singer
  • Music Teacher
  • Conductor

Interpersonal Intelligence

Strengths: Understanding and Relating to Other People

Those who have strong interpersonal intelligence are good understanding and interacting with other people. These individuals are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires and intentions of those around them.

Characteristics of Interpersonal Intelligence

  • Good at communicating verbally
  • Skilled nonverbal communicators
  • See situations from different perspectives
  • Create positive relationships with others
  • Good at resolving conflict in groups

Potential Career Choices

  • Psychologist
  • Philosopher
  • Counselor
  • Sales person
  • Politician

Intrapersonal Intelligence

Strengths: Introspection and Self-Reflection

Individuals who are strong in intrapersonal intelligence are good at being aware of their own emotional states, feelings and motivations. They tend to enjoy self-reflection and analysis, including day-dreaming, exploring relationships with others and assessing their personal strengths.

Characteristics of Intrapersonal Intelligence

  • Good at analyzing their strengths and weaknesses
  • Enjoys analyzing theories and ideas
  • Excellent self-awareness
  • Clearly understands the basis for their own motivations and feelings

Potential Career Choices

  • Philosopher
  • Writer
  • Theorist
  • Scientist

Naturalistic Intelligence

Strengths: Finding Patters and Relationships to Nature

Naturalistic is the most recent addition to Gardner’s theory 5 and has been met with more resistance than his original seven intelligences. According to Gardner, individuals who are high in this type of intelligence are more in tune with nature and are often interesting in nurturing, exploring the environment and learning about other species. These individuals are said to be highly aware of even subtle changes to their environments.

Characteristics of Naturalistic Intelligence

  • Interested in subjects such as botany, biology and zoology
  • Good at categorizing and cataloguing information easily
  • May enjoy camping, gardening, hiking and exploring the outdoors
  • Doesn’t enjoy learning unfamiliar topics that have no connection to nature

Potential Career Choices

  • Biologist
  • Conservationist
  • Gardener
  • Farmer

 

What are the types of learning styles?

Visual Learners:

learn through seeing

These learners need to see the teacher’s body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people’s heads). They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs.  During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.

Auditory Learners:

learn through listening

They learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.

Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners:

learn through , moving, doing and touching…   

Tactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration.

Learning Styles

Many students realize that they have a distinctive learning style. These learning styles impact how well we learn under certain conditions. Some students learn best by hearing information, while others learn best by seeing it. A number of different theories have emerged to describe how students prefer to learn best.

One learning style theory is based on the work of analytical psychologist Carl Jung, who developed a theory of psychological types designed to categorize people in terms of various personality patterns. Jung’s theory focuses on four basic psychological functions:

  1. Extroversion vs. Introversion
  2. Sensation vs. Intuition
  3. Thinking vs. Feeling
  4. Judging vs. Perceiving

This theory later led to the development of the now-famous Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. In addition to influencing personality assessment, Jung’s dimensions can also be used to assess and describe various learning styles. While each dimension represents a unique aspect of a learning style, it is important to remember that your own individual learning style may include a combination of these dimensions. For example, your learning style might include elements of extroverted, sensing, feeling and perceiving learning styles. Read more about each individual dimension in order to determine which combination best describes your unique style.

Extroverted Learning Style

What Is an Extroverted Learning Style?

The first component of the Jungian learning style dimensions indicates how learners interact with the outside world. Extroverted learners enjoy generating energy and ideas from other people. They prefer socializing and working in groups. Learning activities that benefit extroverted learners include teaching others how to solve a problem, collaborative/group work and problem-based learning. If you enjoy teaching others, participating in a group and learning by experience, you are probably an extroverted learner.

Number of Extroverted Learners

Approximately 60% of learners are extroverted learners.

Characteristics of Extrovert Learners

  • Learns best through direct experience
  • Enjoys working with others in groups
  • Often gathers ideas from outside sources
  • Willing to lead, participate and offer opinions
  • Jumps right in without guidance from others

Introverted Learning Style

What Is an Introverted Learning Style?

While introverted learners are still sociable, they prefer to solve problems on their own. Introverted learners enjoy generating energy and ideas from internal sources, such as brainstorming, personal reflection and theoretical exploration. These learners prefer to think about things before attempting to try a new skill. If you enjoy solitary studying, individual work and abstract ideas, you are probably an introverted learner.

Number of Introverted Learners

Approximately 40% of learners are introverted learners.

Characteristics of Introvert Learners

  • Prefers to work alone
  • Enjoys quiet, solitary work
  • Often generates ideas from internal sources
  • Prefers to listen, watch and reflect
  • Likes to observe others before attempting a new skill

Sensing Learning Style

What Is a Sensing Learning Style?

Sensing learners are focused on aspects of the physical environment. Jung described these individuals as being interested in the external world. They tend to be realistic and practical, preferring to rely on information gained through experience. While people with a sensing learning style enjoy order and routine, they also tend to be very quick to adapt to changing environments and situations.

Number of Sensing Learners

Approximately 65% of learners have a sensing learning style.

Characteristics of Sensate Learners

  • Focuses on the present
  • Practical and reasonable
  • Utilizes experience and common sense to solve problems
  • Keenly observe the surrounding world

Intuitive Learning Style

What Is an Intuitive Learning Style?

Intuitive learners tend to focus more on the world of possibility. Unlike sensing learners who are interested in the here and now, intuitive learners enjoy considering ideas, possibilities and potential outcomes. These learners like abstract thought, daydreaming and imagining the future.

Number of Intuitive Learners

Approximately 35% of learners are intuitive learners.

Characteristics of Intuitive Learners

  • Prefers to work in short sessions, rather than finishing a task all at once
  • Enjoys new challenges, experiences and situations
  • More likely to look at the big picture rather than the details
  • Like theories and abstract ideas

Thinking Learning Style

What Is a Thinking Learning Style?

Individuals with a thinking learning style tend to focus more on the structure and function of information and objects. Thinking learners utilize rationality and logic when dealing with problems and decisions. These learners often base decisions on personal ideas of right, wrong, fairness and justice.

Number of Thinking Learners

Approximately 55% of males and 35% of females have a thinking learning style.

Characteristics of Thinking Learners

  • Interested in logic and patterns
  • Dislike basing decisions on emotions
  • Bases decisions on reason and logic

Feeling Learning Style

What Is a Feeling Learning Style?

People with a feeling style manage information based on the initial emotions and feelings it generates. Individuals with this learning style are interested in personal relationships, feelings and social harmony. If you base decisions on emotions and dislike conflict, you might have a feeling learning style.

Number of Feeling Learners

Approximately 45% of males 65% of females are feeling learners.

Characteristics of Feeling Learners

  • Interested in people and their feelings
  • In tune with their own emotions and those of other people
  • Base decisions on immediate feelings
  • Generates excitement and enthusiasm in group settings

Judging Learning Style

What Is a Judging Learning Style?

Judging learners tend to be very decisive. In some cases, these learners may actually make decisions too quickly before learning everything they need to know about a situation. These learners prefer order and structure, which is why they tend to plan out activities and schedules very carefully. If you are highly organized, detail-oriented and have strong opinions, you might be a judging learner.

Number of Judging Learners

Approximately 45% of people are judging learners.

Characteristics of Judging Learners

  • Do not like ambiguity or mystery
  • Tend to be firm in their decisions
  • Very organized and structured
  • Strong opinions
  • Generally follows the rules

Perceiving Learning Style

What Is a Perceiving Learning Style?

Perceiving learners tend to make decisions impulsively in response to new information and changing situations. However, these learners tend to focus more on indulging their curiosity rather than making decisions. Unlike judging learners who tend not to change their minds, perceiving learners prefer to keep their options open. If you tend to start many projects at once (often without finishing any of them), avoid strict schedules and jump in to projects first without planning, you might be a perceiving learner.

Number of Perceiving Learners

Approximately 55% of people are perceiving learners.

Characteristics of Perceiving Learners

  • Often make impulsive decisions
  • Change decisions based on new information
  • Dislike structure and organization
  • Tends to be very flexible and adaptable
  • Sometimes has trouble making decisions

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